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The fundamental principle that should guide all nature photographers is this: the welfare of the subject is more important than the photograph.

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Nothing you do should stress or injure the creature you are photographing. Nor should you harm or disturb any other creature in order to photograph your main subject. Nor should you damage the environment. For example, you should not do any of the following:

a) Bait a subject with a live creature. (Specifically prohibited by PSA.)

b) Remove an animal, bird or egg from a nest. (Specifically prohibited by PSA.)

c) Cause your subject to become exposed to predation.

d) Disturb the reproductive process or cycle of the subject.

e) Disturb a bird that is constructing a nest or one that is near a nest in which there may be eggs or young.

f) Remove foliage in order to get a better view of a nest.

g) Construct a hide in a location that will disturb the subject in any way.

h) Place camera equipment (particularly artificial lighting, including flash) close enough to subjects to cause them distress or injury.

i) Artificially restrict the free movement of the subject.

j) Use recorded sounds to attract a subject.

k) Capture wild subjects for the purpose of photography under controlled conditions.

l) Wake a hibernating animal.

m) Disturb the environment by moving things in order to locate subjects to photograph.

n) Use chilling or anaesthesia to quieten any subject, including invertebrates.

o) Pick plants or move them from their natural location.

p) Remove part of one plant in order to photograph another plant or other subject.

q) Use a drone to photograph any animal or bird in its natural environment if this has the potential to stress or disturb the subject.

When processing nature images you should not do anything that would change the truth of what you observed at the time you captured the image. (Specifically prohibited by PSA.)

Photographers should always be aware of any legal restrictions that may limit what, where and how they may photograph nature subjects in whichever country they are operating.

PSA has a very comprehensive Ethics Policy that is relevant to all photographers (not just nature photographers).

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